In addition to collecting samples, MMX also performs remote sensing of Mars and its moons using various observation instruments.
It is still not clear how the two small Martian moons were formed and what process they were going through.
Phobos surface seen with visible / near infrared light is not uniform, and the possibility that the constituent materials are different is also discussed.
Discussions are being made by Japanese and international scientists to determine where samples should be taken from. Observation data obtained by remote sensing instruments will be used to determine the sampling locations.
TENGOO / OROCHI
TENGOO stands for “TElescopic Nadir imager for GeOmOrphology”.
It is a telescopic (narrow angle) camera for observing the detailed terrain on the surface of the Martian moon. It can capture surface images at a resolution of about 40cm and obtain information on the distribution of different materials that correspond to the collected samples. It can also be used for checking safety of the planned landing site.
OROCHI stands for “Optical RadiOmeter composed of CHromatic Imagers”.
It is a wide angle camera to observe the topography and material compositions on the Martian moon surface. It can take images of visible light reflected from the Martian moon's surface at multiple wavelengths to identify hydrated materials and organic matter both around globally and at the sampling locations.
Rikkyo University, Professor
LIDAR stands for “Light Detection And Ranging”.
It is a ranging instrument to observe the shape information of the Martian moon surface. The surface altitude and albedo distribution will be derived by measuring the time until the reflected light returns and the energy of reflected light after the laser towards the satellite is injected.
Chiba Institute of Technology, Senior Fellow
MacrOmega stands for “Macroscopique (Macroscopic) Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, le Glaces et l'Activité (Observatory for Mineralogy, Water, Ice and Activity)”.
It is a near infrared observation device to clarify the characteristics of minerals constituting the Martian moon. By spectroscopic measurement of near infrared lights up to the 4 μm wavelength band, the distribution of hydrous minerals, water related substances and organic matter over the whole sphere is observed and used for selection of sampling locations.
Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Professor
MEGANE stands for "Mars-moon Exploration with GAmma rays and NEutrons".
It is a gamma ray / neutron observation device to clarify the characteristics of elements constituting Martian moon. By observing gamma rays and neutrons released from elements on the surface layer, the composition of major elements and hydrogen in the global surface layer is observed and its measurements are used for selecting sampling locations.
David J. Lawrence
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Planetary Scientist
CMDM stands for “Circum-Martian Dust Monitor”.
It is a device for clarifying the dust environment around the Martin moon. By measuring the dust abundance of 10 μm or more in size, the frequency of collision of celestial bodies that generate dust and the phenomenon of dust reintegration on Martian moons are investigated.
Planetary Exploration Research Center Chiba Institute of Technology Senior Staff Scientist
Spciality: Planetary Exploration
I am extremely excited to be able to participate in the MMX mission. We are aiming to discover the Martian circulation dust that has been theoretically predicted for many years but has not been found yet. Although there is a long way to go before we get to the goal, we try our best.
MSA stand for “Mass Spectrum Analyzer”.
It is a device to clarify the ion environment around the Martian moon. The presence of ice inside the Martian moon, the weathering effect of the Martian moon surface, and the amount of Martian atmosphere dissipation are investigated by measuring ions released from the Martian moon, ions released from Mars, and solar wind ions.
Osaka University, Associate Professor